Containers created using osctl are actually LXC containers. osctl provides an abstracted interface to control these containers, while in fact every container can be run under a different user and within a different resource group. It can be useful to know what is osctld actually doing for you and how you can manipulate the LXC containers directly. The first step is understanding how osctld uses ZFS pools.
Let's create a pool and install it into osctld:
# Install a pool dd if=/dev/zero of=/tank.zpool bs=1M count=4096 zpool create tank /tank.zpool osctl pool install tank # List pool layout zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT tank 5.50M 874M 41.5K /tank tank/conf 30.5K 874M 30.5K /tank/conf tank/ct 24K 874M 24K /tank/ct tank/log 30K 874M 30K /tank/log tank/repository 5.03M 874M 5.03M /tank/repository
tank/conf is used to store configuration files for users, groups,
containers, repositories and container send/receive in respective subdirectories.
The configuration files actually define those entities, i.e. when there is no
configuration file for a container, the container does not exist.
tank/ct contains subdatasets, one for every container, named by container ids.
These datasets contain the containers' rootfs and have their user/group ids
shifted into the user namespace.
tank/log is used to store log files generated by
lxc-start, one for each
tank/repository contains local caches for remote image repositories.
Whenever you create a container using an image from a remote repository,
the downloaded image is cached for later use.
Users representing user namespaces are stored in directory
/run/osctl/pools/tank/users. User directories contain subdirectories for every
user/group combination that any containers are using. These directories are what
LXC calls LXC home or LXC path, which by default in LXC is
In vpsAdminOS, there is one LXC path for every user/group combination used
by containers. Inside LXC path are directories representing containers,
containing config files read by LXC.
Let's create a container and see it in action:
# Create a one user namespace and a container osctl user new --map 0:666000:65536 myuser01 osctl ct new --user myuser01 --distribution ubuntu --version 16.04 myct01 # Review pool layout zfs list -oname,uidmap,gidmap,mountpoint NAME UIDMAP GIDMAP MOUNTPOINT tank none none /tank tank/conf none none /tank/conf tank/ct none none /tank/ct tank/ct/myct01 0:666000:65536 0:666000:65536 /tank/ct/myct01 # Container rootfs tank/log none none /tank/log tank/repository none none /tank/repository
Because every user, group and container is defined by multiple datasets, files or directories, osctl provides a way to see what those entities are and what is their state. First, review the user namespace:
osctl user assets myuser01 TYPE PATH STATE PURPOSE directory /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01 valid User directory directory /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/.home valid Home directory file /tank/conf/user/myuser01.yml valid osctld's user config entry /etc/passwd valid System user entry /etc/group valid System group
VALID is not
true for some asset, it means that either it does not exist
or is invalid, such as wrong file owner, group or access mode. Use option
to show these errors.
Because we haven't selected a group when creating the container, osctld put it into the default group. Let's see its assets:
osctl group assets /default TYPE PATH STATE PURPOSE file /tank/conf/group/default/config.yml valid osctld's group config directory /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts valid LXC path for myuser01:/default
As you can see, there is one LXC path for user
myuser01 and group
where our container resides. Let's review the container:
osctl ct assets myct01 TYPE PATH STATE PURPOSE dataset tank/ct/myct01 valid Container's rootfs dataset directory /tank/ct/myct01/private valid Container's rootfs directory /tank/hook/ct/myct01 valid User supplied script hooks directory /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01 valid LXC configuration file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/config valid LXC base config file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/network valid LXC network config file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/cgparams valid LXC cgroup parameters file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/prlimits valid LXC resource limits file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/mounts valid LXC mounts file /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts/myct01/.bashrc valid Shell configuration file for osctl ct su file /tank/conf/ct/myct01.yml valid Container config for osctld file /tank/log/ct/myct01.log valid LXC log file
Administrators can use
osctl ct attach to enter containers and get root shell,
without the need of knowing password for SSH or
osctl ct console. osctl
is by default trying to unify the shell interface from the administrator's
point of view, so that whatever container you enter, you always get the same
prompt and behaviour.
osctl ct attach myct01 [CT myct01] root@myct01:/# cat /etc/alpine-release 3.7.0 osctl ct attach myct02 [CT myct02] root@myct02:/# lsb_release -a No LSB modules are available. Distributor ID: Ubuntu Description: Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Release: 18.04 Codename: bionic
This is done by ignoring shell configuration from the container and configuring
the shell from the host. If you wish to open the shell and load configuration
from the container, you can use option
Identifying container processes from the host
When you find a misbehaving process on the host, you need to identify to which
container the process belongs to, so that you may notify its owner or set
a limit. You could do this manually by looking at
identifying the container by the cgroup path. This is what
osctl ct pid does.
You give it process IDs as seen on the host and it will tell you what containers
they belong to.
osctl ct pid 22690 23292 PID CONTAINER CTPID NAME 22690 tank:myct01 226 agetty 23292 tank:myct01 228 agetty
osctl can also read process IDs from standard input:
osctl ct pid - PID CONTAINER CTPID NAME > 22690 22690 tank:myct01 226 agetty > 23292 23292 tank:myct01 228 agetty
Listing container processes
osctl provides a way of filtering processes that belong to a particular container without entering the container:
osctl ct ps myct01 PID CTPID CTEUID VMSIZE RSS STATE START TIME COMMAND 10140 1 0 75.4M 1.6K S 11:07 0s /sbin/init 10272 53 0 76.6M 2.0K S 11:07 0s /lib/systemd/systemd-journald 10283 62 0 41.1M 621 S 11:07 0s /lib/systemd/systemd-udevd 10342 120 101 69.0M 880 S 11:07 0s /lib/systemd/systemd-resolved 10343 121 0 60.6M 982 S 11:07 0s /lib/systemd/systemd-logind 10344 122 0 29.3M 475 S 11:07 0s /usr/sbin/cron-f 10345 123 0 165.2M 3.3K S 11:07 0s /usr/bin/python3/usr/bin/networkd-dispatcher--run-startup-triggers 10346 124 103 48.8M 674 S 11:07 0s /usr/bin/dbus-daemon--system--address=systemd:--nofork--nopidfile--systemd-activation--syslog-only 10347 125 102 188.9M 681 S 11:07 0s /usr/sbin/rsyslogd-n 10354 132 0 14.3M 350 S 11:07 0s /sbin/agetty-o-p -- \u--noclear--keep-baudconsole115200,38400,9600vt220 10355 133 0 14.3M 341 S 11:07 0s /sbin/agetty-o-p -- \u--noclear--keep-baudpts/3115200,38400,9600vt220 10356 134 0 14.3M 344 S 11:07 0s /sbin/agetty-o-p -- \u--noclear--keep-baudpts/2115200,38400,9600vt220 10357 135 0 14.3M 347 S 11:07 0s /sbin/agetty-o-p -- \u--noclear--keep-baudpts/0115200,38400,9600vt220 10358 136 0 14.3M 345 S 11:07 0s /sbin/agetty-o-p -- \u--noclear--keep-baudpts/1115200,38400,9600vt220 10359 137 0 70.6M 917 S 11:07 0s /usr/sbin/sshd-D
Container resource monitor
osctl ct top is a top-like TUI application that monitors real-time resource
usage. Instead of processes it monitors containers.
It can work in two modes: real-time and cumulative. Real-time mode shows resource
consumption since the last update, i.e. 1 second by default. Since measurements
can take several seconds on systems under heavy load, delay from the current time
is shown in square brackets. Cumulative mode shows resource usage since
the program was started. Mode can be switched by pressing
Left and right arrows can be used to change the sort column,
r to reverse
sort order. Up and down arrows move selection cursor up and down, spacebar will
highlight the selected container for easier spotting. Enter/return key will open
top focused on the selected container,
h will open htop. Page Up/Down will
scroll through the list of containers, paging position is shown in the bottom
right corner. Containers can be filtered by ID using
/ key. Press
? to show
all key bindings.
htop in vpsAdminOS is patched to be able to identify to which containers
processes belong. It has four extra columns:
For container processes,
NSPID shows the process ID and
NSUID the process
user ID as it is seen inside the container, i.e. its user namespace.
Our htop can filter processes by container ID. You can use CLI option
--container to select which container to filter at start, e.g.:
htop -c tank:10796. Filters can also be changed at runtime, press
and select a container, the host, or all processes.
You don't need to remember the path to a container's log file, because osctl can either dump it for you or just print the path:
osctl ct log cat <id> osctl ct log path <id>
When debugging a container that's failing to start, you can enable LXC debug
osctl ct start --debug.
Reloading config file
Container config files are meant to be edited through osctl. osctld reads all config files on start and does not check them for changes after that. If you've manually edited some container config, you can tell osctld to reload it:
osctl ct cfg reload <id>
Note that the container has to be stopped for the reload to be allowed.
Should you want to switch to a container's user and use LXC utilities directly,
you have to use
osctl ct su <id>. Using
/bin/su is insufficient, because standard
su does not manage cgroups.
osctl ct su will open a shell with the same
environment as osctld itself is using to start the container.
osctl ct su myct01 Opened shell for: User: myuser01 Group: /default CT: myct01 Available LXC utilities: lxc-attach lxc-cgroup lxc-console lxc-device lxc-execute lxc-info lxc-ls lxc-monitor lxc-stop lxc-top lxc-wait Implicit arguments: -P /run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/default -n myct01 Do not use this shell to manipulate any other container than myct01. [unsmyuser01@vpsadminos:/run/osctl/pools/tank/users/myuser01/group.default/cts]$
The shell uses
~/.bashrc, see user assets above. The shell can be used to manipulate
only the chosen container, because every container has a specific cgroup path,
so running other containers would put them to a wrong group.
The LXC utilities are unmodified except for the implicit arguments, which let you forget that there is a non-default LXC path and some container id.
osctl command shortcuts
Selected osctl commands, such as
osctl ct, have direct executables to avoid
osctl. For example,
osctl ct ls can be invoked as
ct ls. See the
manual for a list of available command shortcuts. If you need to pass global
options, you still need to use